This is the much publicized photo of Rose and Little Rose in Capitol Prison.
Rose O'Neal Greenhow,
her daughter, "Little Rose" Greenhow
Photo by Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) for the Mathew Brady Studio
Albumen silver print, 1862 National Portrait Gallery,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
This is the image as it really looked.....
The Old Capitol Prison
The Old Capitol Prison was located on the
site of the U.S. Supreme Court building, First Street and ‘A’ Street NE
in Washington DC. The building was erected about 1800 as a tavern and
house. It remained as such until the British burned the U.S. Capitol
in 1814, during the War of 1812. On 8 December 1815 the U.S. Congress
this building for their use. In 1817 President James Monroe was
on a platform outside the Brick Capitol, as this building became known.
By 1825 the new U.S. Capitol building was built and this temporary
became, among other things, a boarding house, a school, and a hotel at
times. It also became known as the Old Capitol. In 1853, Senator Isaac
P Walker (Wisconsin), Representatives Orlando B Ficklin (Illinois), and
Representative Sampson W Harris (Alabama) resided in Mrs. Hill’s Old
By the time of the American Civil War in 1861 it was a vacant building again. During the civil war this building again was inhabited, this time as the Old Capitol Prison. It housed both Confederate and Union prisoners as well as prisoners of state. Some famous prisoners were Belle Boyd and Rose O’Neal, confederate spies, Captain Henry Wirz, commander of the infamous confederate Andersonville prison in Georgia, and the 14 April 1864 Lincoln assasination conspirators.
Captain Henry Wirz was hanged 10 November 1865 in the Old Capitol Prison yard, and was the only Confederate tried and hanged for war crimes. He is buried at the Mount Olivet Cemetery, 1300 Bladensburg Road, NE, Washington DC. Four of the Lincoln conspirators were hanged in the prison yard. There were eight conspirators with Booth. Booth died in a twelve day chase with the Union army. Lewis Paine, George Atzerodt, David Herold, and Mary Surratt were hanged in the yard of the Old Capitol Prison on 7 July 1865. Between 1929-1932 the first permanent and the current U.S. Supreme Court building was built for about $9.5 million on the land where the Old Capitol Prison once stood.
NOTE: Edman ‘Ned’ Spangler, Samuel Arnold, and
Dr. Samuel Mudd received life sentences, but were pardoned by President
Andrew Johnson in 1869, Michael O’Laughlen while serving his life
died in prison in 1867. These four were also involved in the Lincoln
Old Capitol Prison
Old Capitol Prison, Washington DC During the
of 1812, the British burned the U.S. Capitol. Congress built a
capitol while waiting for the new capitol to be built. After the new
was erected the temporary building was turned into a boarding house,
it became known as the Old Capitol.
(Right click image to enlarge.) When the Civil War began, the building was abandoned. They later turned it into a prison, where the security was mainly guards pacing around outside. It mainly housed Confederate prisoners. Northern Political prisoners, spies and blockade runners. Some of the most famous prisoners were women. For example, Belle Boyd and Rose O’Neal who spied for the Confederacy and played an important role in the victory at the 1st Bull Run. Henry Wirz, the commander of Andersonville prison and the conspirators of the Lincoln assassination were hung in the yard of the Old Capitol building.
Amzi Vanderburg, Pvt. Company A 33rd North Carolina Infantry was wounded in the head and neck and captured at Chancellorsville, VA 3May1863.Confined at Old Capitol Prison, Washington DC. Released on or about 13 December 1863 after taking the Oath of Allegiance.
William Carson Vanderburg, Pvt. Company A,
North Carolina Infantry captured at or near Chancellorsville, VA 3 May
1863. Sent to Washington DC Paroled and transferred to City Point, VA,
where he was received on 13 May 1863, for exchange.
Amzi and William Carson were also captured at the battle of Fredericksburg Deceember 13, 1862 and exchanged on or about December 17, 1862.
Frances M. Vanderburg, Pvt. Company A, 33rd North Carolina Infantry Enlisted 3 December 1861. Present or accounted for through February 1862. Company records dated November-December 1862 indicate he was a prisoner of war, however, records of the Federal Provost Marshal do not substantiate that report.Reported absent without leave during January-September 1863. Returned to duty on October 1, 1863. Discharged on October 29, 1863. Reason discharged not reported.
North Carolina Troops: 1861-1865 Vol. IX page 134
Alfred Vanderburg, Pvt. Company B 7th Regiment N.C. State Troops Enlisted January 1, 1862 for the war. Present or accounted for until killed at the second battle of Manassas, Virginia 29 August 1862
John J. Vanderburg, Pvt. Company B 7th Regiment N.C. State Troops Enlisted June 20, 1861 for the war. Present or accounted for until admitted to hospital at Petersburg, Virginia August 27, 1864, with a gunshot wound of the hand; however, place and date wounded not reported. Returned to duty November 14, 1864. Paroled at Greensboro on May 1, 1865
Loveless Vanderburg, Pvt. Company B 7th Regiment, N.C. State Troops Enlisted July 12, 1861,for the war. Present or accounted for until he died on December 15, 1862, or in May-June 1863. Place and cause of death not reported.
North Carolina Troops: 1861-1865 Vol. IV page
Note: The records of the Old Capitol Prison (1863-1865) are at the National Archives, Record Group 393, “Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands” according to “A Guide to Records of the District of Columbia” by Wesley E. Pippenger, 1997.
The National Archives web site site is at: www.nara.gov.